From June 2013, via Paul Homewood:
6/7/2013, "Is Fighting Global Warming the Solution to Water Shortages in Malawi (or Elsewhere)?" WUWT, Guest essay by E. Calvin Beisner
"In late May (2013) two evangelical environmentalists, recently returned from
visiting Malawi, published articles in which they said poor Malawians
are suffering from reduced rainfall caused by manmade global warming..
Jonathan Merritt wrote for Religion News Service, “In America, climate change is a matter of debate, but in places like Malawi, it’s a matter of life and death.” Judd Birdsall wrote for Huffington Post, “In Fombe village, Malawi, climate change is not a matter of political or scientific debate. It’s a matter of survival.”
The implication was clear: To help the poor in Malawi (and other developing nations), we must fight global warming.
If either author had dug deeper, he might have concluded differently....
Are poor Malawians suffering from water shortages? Yes. Is that
because of global warming—manmade or natural? No. Is fighting global
warming the solution? No.
Malawi is actually a water-rich nation. Not only does its annual
rainfall average approximately 40 inches (about the same as Delaware,
Indiana, Maryland, and New Jersey), but also it includes much of Lake
Malawi—"the third largest and the second deepest lake in Africa" and the ninth largest in the world.
About 80 percent of Malawi is within 75 miles of Lake Malawi, and
most of what isn’t is within 50 miles of the Shire River, which flows
south from the lake and eventually joins the might Zambezi River. Fifty
miles is a distance easily covered by aqueducts. Fombe—where Merritt and
Birdsall visited and heard the anecdotes about declining stream flow—is
at least potentially a water-rich village. It is a mere 10 miles from
For comparison, the Roman aqueducts, built two millennia ago, carried water 260 miles, and the system of aqueducts constituting the California State Water Project
(SWP) provides drinking water for over 23 million people (over 1/3
third more than the entire population of Malawi) by transporting water
hundreds of miles from the Colorado River, the Sierra Nevada, and
central and northern California. The shortest, the Colorado River
Aqueduct, is over 240 miles long.
Of course, California is wealthy (though it wasn’t nearly so wealthy
when much of the SWP was built), and Malawi is poor. How can Malawi
afford to build such aqueducts—even if they would cover far less
distance and serve only a small fraction of the people?
The real solution to Malawi’s water needs is economic growth that
will enable Malawians to bear the costs of improved water
transportation, storage, purification, and conservation through
Sad to say, however, if climate change activists succeed in enacting
policies to fight global warming, Malawi’s economic growth will be
curtailed. Why? Because abundant, reliable, affordable energy is an
essential condition of economic growth, and activists seek to fight
global warming by shunning the use of the most reliable and affordable
energy sources for the developing world—coal and natural gas—and putting
far more expensive “Green” energy sources like wind and solar in their
place. As it happens, Malawi has abundant coal reserves and already mines them
(PDF download), though it could benefit from mining far more to
generate electricity and deliver its people from the smoke that comes
from burning wood and dried dung as primary cooking and heating
fuels—smoke that causes high rates of illness and premature death,
especially among women and children, from respiratory diseases.
Ironically, and sadly, the climate policy Merritt and Birdsall want
will only bring further harm to the very people they long to help, by
prolonging their poverty—the real threat to Malawians’ health and life."
"E. Calvin Beisner, Ph.D., is Founder and National Spokesman of the
Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation and author of several
books on environmental stewardship."
4/21/15, Footnote on Malawi temperatures, from Paul Homewood:
"For the record, according to GISS/GHCN, there are no currently operational stations in . The only place with anything remotely recent is the international airport of Chileka.
There are so many missing readings since 1986 that any trends since
are meaningless. (For instance, the final plot on the graph, for 2010,
has six missing months.).
Prior to 2010, what records are available suggest no trend at all, despite undoubted UHI effects."
"Over 1 million Malawians are infected with HIV, and AIDS
is the leading cause of death for young people. These deaths have an
extremely negative impact on future generations, leaving the country
with over 500,000 orphans." Map from Malawi Project
Especially cruel is to preach methods to a Southern Hemisphere country that peer reviewed science says don't work. Northern and Southern Hemispheres aren't comparable:
8/4/14, "Climate change not so global," University of Queensland, Australia
"Scientists are calling for a better understanding of regional
climates, after research into New Zealand's glaciers has revealed
climate change in the Northern Hemisphere does not directly affect the
climate in the Southern Hemisphere.
The University of Queensland study showed that future climate changes
may impact differently in the two hemispheres, meaning a generalised
global approach isn’t the solution to climate issues.
UQ School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management Head Professor Jamie Shulmeister
said the study provided evidence for the late survival of significant
glaciers in the mountains of New Zealand at the end of the last ice age –
a time when other ice areas were retreating..
“This study reverses previous findings which suggested that New
Zealand's glaciers disappeared at the same time as ice in the Northern
Hemisphere,” he said."...
Peer reviewed study cited above:
7/28/2014, "The early rise and late demise of New Zealand’s last glacial maximum," PNAS.org
"This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1401547111/-/DCSupplemental."
NASA confirms, unlike the Arctic, the Antarctic is isolated from major population centers and emissions they produce, in particular it's not exposed to wind driven black carbon from Asia:
4/8/2009, "Aerosols May Drive a Significant Portion of Arctic Warming," nasa.gov/topics
"The Arctic region has seen
its surface air temperatures increase by 1.5 C (2.7 F) since the
mid-1970s. In the Antarctic, where aerosols play less of a role, the
surface air temperature has increased about 0.35 C (0.6 F)....
Since decreasing amounts of sulfates and increasing amounts of black
carbon both encourage warming, temperature increases can be especially
rapid. The build-up of aerosols also triggers positive feedback cycles
that further accelerate warming as snow and ice cover retreat.
In the Antarctic, in contrast, the impact of sulfates and black carbon
is minimized because of the continent’s isolation from major population
centers and the emissions they produce....
A new study, led by climate scientist Drew Shindell of the NASA Goddard
Institute for Space Studies, New York, used a coupled ocean-atmosphere
model to investigate how sensitive different regional climates are to
changes in levels of carbon dioxide, ozone, and aerosols.
The researchers found that the mid and high latitudes are especially
responsive to changes in the level of aerosols. Indeed, the model
suggests aerosols likely account for 45 percent or more of the warming
that has occurred in the Arctic during the last three decades. The
results were published in the April issue of Nature Geoscience....
Sulfates, which come primarily from the burning of coal and oil, scatter
incoming solar radiation and have a net cooling effect on climate. Over
the past three decades, the United States and European countries have
passed a series of laws that have reduced sulfate emissions by 50
percent. While improving air quality and aiding public health, the
result has been less atmospheric cooling from sulfates.
At the same time, black carbon emissions have steadily risen, largely
because of increasing emissions from Asia. Black carbon -- small,
soot-like particles produced by industrial processes and the combustion
of diesel and biofuels -- absorb incoming solar radiation and have a
strong warming influence on the atmosphere."...
Peer reviewed study cited in above NASA article:
3/22/2009, "Climate response to regional radiative forcing during the twentieth century," Nature Geoscience, Drew Shindell1 and