Wednesday, April 22, 2015

African dust degrades Florida Everglades and Florida ecosystem, hundreds of millions of tons of Saharan dust and chemicals flow yearly to southern US, Caribbean, and other areas-USGS

12/6/2004, "Atmospheric Deposition of African Dust in the Everglades and Florida Bay Ecosystem," E. A. Shinn, USGS, St. Petersburg, FL

USGS map
"Significant degradation in the Everglades and Florida Bay ecosystem usually associated with human factors also coincides with the long-term African drought and a four-fold influx of dust that began impacting Florida in the early 1970s. African soil dust delivers arsenic, phosphorous, sulfates, pesticides, microbes, pollen, and probably seeds and insects to all south Florida environments. Dust-borne elements can also benefit flora and have been shown to deliver essential nutrients to the Amazon rain forest. Atmospheric dust likely is both a benefit and detriment to Florida’s environment. The USGS Global Dust project is attempting to characterize and determine the effects of dust borne nutrients, toxics, and exotics on south Florida. Previous studies show that about half the atmospheric particles that settle in south Florida during summer months originate in North Africa."... 

USGS Map caption: "Transport of African dust to the Americas: map from Perry, K.D., Cahill, T.A., Eldred, R.A., and Dutcher, D.D., 1997, Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 102, no. D10, p. 11225-11238."

March 2002, "Caribbean Coral-Reef Ecologist Studies Dust from the African Sahel,", Ginger Garrison

"Every year, hundreds of millions of tons of African dust are carried from the Sahara and Sahel across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and the southeastern United States. In the Caribbean, the sky becomes hazy, visibility decreases to a few kilometers, a fine red dust settles on surfaces, and residents complain of sinus problems, coughs, and other ailments said to be caused by the dust. Although the dust has been carried to the Caribbean for thousands of years, the amount transported varies from year to year and has increased drastically since the early 1970s with the beginning of the drought in the Sahel.

Composed primarily of soil particles so small (less than 2.5 ┬Ám) that our lungs cannot expel them, the dust may transport various microorganisms and chemicals that hitchhike on the small particles. Charles Darwin, on his 1845 voyage aboard the surveying ship H.M.S. Beagle, collected African dust in the Atlantic and, using a microscope, saw live microorganisms on the soil particles. Even larger organisms, African desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria, as much as 3 inches long or longer), arrived alive in Antigua, Barbados, and Trinidad during a large dust event in 1988."...


Nov. 2000 Scientific American article notes GRL published study finding coral killing spores from Africa dust over US Virgin Islands:

11/6/2000,  "Coral-Killing Dust," Scientific American, Sarah Simpson

"Caribbean coral reefs are dying, and reddish dust blowing in from Africa may be partly to blame."

"Peer into the skies of Miami or San Juan on a late summer day, and you'll see that threat lurking as a reddish haze that virtually blots out the sun. Researchers have long known that strong winds periodically sweep clay-rich red soil off the dry surface of the Sahel--the region just south of the Saharan desert in North Africa--and send it across the Atlantic Ocean in giant plumes easily visible from space. The airborne dirt then rains down in south Florida and the Caribbean Sea as it has done every summer for hundreds of thousands of years. (In fact, the topsoil of Barbados is almost entirely African dust.) Only recently have researchers realized that the dust is loaded with potential coral killers--including disease spores, radioactive elements and overabundant nutrients.

Marine geologist Eugene A. Shinn of the U.S. Geological Survey in St. Petersburg, Fla., became suspicious of the African dust after nearly 30 years of studying the Caribbean's reef-building corals and their perplexing demise. When Shinn began his work--and for at least 6,000 years before that time--branching elkhorn and staghorn corals (Acropora palmata and Acropora cervicornis) dominated Caribbean reefs. 

To Shinn's dismay a type of tissue-killing bacterial slime called black band disease appeared at some of his research locations in the early 1970s and has proliferated ever since. In the summer of 1983 a common species of plant-eating spiny sea urchin (Diadema antillarum) began dying mysteriously. Within a year 90 percent of them were gone. Without these urchins to graze on them, the algae quickly overran the stony corals, many of which were already sick. In a mere two decades, most Caribbean reefs went from coral- to algae-dominated.

For many years Shinn explored how water pollution might be damaging reefs in the Florida Keys. But nothing he found could explain why the same diseases were killing corals in areas far from human activity. Then in the late 1990s he noticed that the proliferation of coral disease happened to coincide with the onset of severe drought in North Africa and more dust traveling across the Atlantic, a phenomenon studied in depth by Joseph M. Prospero of the University of Miami. What's more, Shinn and Prospero realized, the greatest African dust fallout on record was 1983 the same year as the Diadema die-out. 
"It was the simple correlation between the death of these corals and sea urchins and the increase in dust had no evidence until recently. 

In 1996 Garriet W. Smith and other researchers at the University of South Carolina identified a soil fungus (Aspergillus sydowii) that has been killing soft corals called sea fans (specifically, Gorgonia ventalina and Gorgonia flabellum), which were at one time widespread in the Caribbean. The mysterious fact is that Aspergillus cannot reproduce in seawater, and yet the sea fans have been locked in an ongoing battle against the disease for a decade. Something must be providing the Caribbean waters with a continuous supply of ammunition for the disease. African dust, perhaps? 

Smith and his colleagues recently isolated Aspergillus spores from African dust samples collected in the skies over the U.S. Virgin Islands, and they reported their findings in the October 1 (2000) issue of Geophysical Research Letters....

In African dust collected from the bottom of water cisterns in the Caribbean, Shinn and his colleagues discovered alarmingly high concentrations of poisonous mercury and radioactive beryllium-7. These findings were reinforced last February when scientists at the University of the Azores captured dust samples from an exceptionally large African dust plume as it drifted over their Atlantic island community some 1,500 kilometers west of Lisbon. The dust emitted gamma radiation up to 45,000 dpm per gram, roughly three times the radiation allowed in the workplace, Shinn says. 

As for mercury, two particles of the dangerous metal turned up per million particles of dust. That may not sound like much, but mercury usually occurs in the atmosphere in concentrations of a few particles per billion particles of dust. Open-pit mercury mines in Algeria could be the source, Shinn speculates....
The dust itself could pose a threat. The dust is made up of small grains of iron, aluminum, phosphorus and other elements--all important nutrients known to support microscopic life, but an excess of nutrients can have negative consequences. Marshall L. Hayes of Duke University is investigating whether iron in the dust might encourage the growth of coral-killing bacteria. "You don't have to bring exotic pathogens into an area," Hayes says. "You can have an organism that is potentially pathogenic and give it more nutrients and enhance its ability to be virulent."

Molecules, proteins and other components of cells need iron to function, so in ocean realms where iron is limited, such as some coral reefs, the volume of bacteria and other microscopic life is held in check. A large dose of iron from an African dust plume, for instance could ignite rampant growth."...


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